|A garage door opener is a motorized device that opens and closes garage doors. Most are controlled by switches on the garage wall, as well as by remote controls carried in the garage owner's cars
The electric opener
The electric overhead garage door opener was invented by C.G. Johnson in 1926 in Hartford City, Indiana. Contrary to popular belief, the electric opener does not provide the actual lifting power to open and close a heavy garage door. Instead, most of the actual lifting power comes from the counterbalance springs that are under tension to lift the garage door via steel counterbalance cables. The electric opener only controls how far the door opens and closes, as well as the force the garage door exerts. In most cases, the garage door opener also acts as a lock.
The typical electric garage door opener consists of a power unit that contains the electric motor. The power unit attaches to a track. A trolley connected to an arm that attaches to the top of the garage door slides back and forth on the track, thus opening and closing the garage door. The trolley is guided along the track by a chain, belt, or screw that turns when the motor is operated. A quick-release mechanism is attached to the trolley to allow the garage door to be disconnected from the opener for manual operation during a power failure or in case of emergency. Limit switches on the power unit control the distance the garage door opens and closes once the motor receives a signal from the remote control or wall push button to operate the
The entire assembly hangs above the garage door. The power unit hangs from the ceiling and is located towards the rear of the garage. The end of the track on the opposite end of the power unit attaches to a header bracket that is attached to the header wall above the garage door. The power head is usually supported by punched angle iron.
The first garage door opener remote controls were simple and consisted of a simple transmitter (the remote) and receiver which controlled the opener mechanism. The transmitter would transmit on a designated frequency; the receiver would listen for the radio signal, then open or close the garage, depending on the door position. The basic concept of this can be traced back to World War II. This type of system was used to detonate remote bombs. While novel at the time, the technology ran its course when garage door openers became widely available and used. Then, not only did a person open their garage door, they opened their neighbor’s garage door as well. While the garage door remote is low in power and in range, it was powerful enough to interfere with other receivers in the area.
The second stage of the wireless garage door opener system deals with the shared frequency problem. To rectify this, systems required a garage door owner to preset a digital code via dip switches on the receiver and transmitter. While these switches provided garage door systems with 28 = 256 different codes they were not designed with high security in mind; the main intent was to avoid interference with similar systems nearby.
The third stage of garage door opener market uses a frequency spectrum range between 300-400 MHz and most of the transmitter/receivers rely on hopping or rolling code technology. This approach prevents perpetrators from recording a code and replaying it to open a garage door. Since the signal is supposed to be significantly different from that of any other garage door remote control, manufacturers claim it is impossible for someone other than the owner of the remote to open the garage. When the transmitter sends a code, it generates a new code using an encoder. The receiver, after receiving a correct code, uses the same encoder with the same original seed to generate a new code that it will accept in the future. Because there is a high probability that someone might accidentally push the open button while not in range and desynchronize the code, the receiver generates look-a-head codes ahead of time.
The fourth stage of garage door opener systems is similar to third stage, but it is limited to the 315 MHz frequency. The 315 MHz frequency range avoids interference from the Land Mobile Radio System (LMRS) used by the U.S. military.
Settlers began arriving in
the Peters colony area around 1850 but a community wasn't
created until 1874. Two communities sprung up in the area:
Embree, named for the physician K. H. Embree, and Duck
Creek, named for the local creek of the same name. A rivalry
between the two towns ensued as the area began to grow
around the Santa Fe Railroad depot. Eventually, to settle a
dispute regarding which town should have the local post
office, Dallas County Judge Thomas A. Nash asked visiting
Congressman Joe Abbott to move the post office between the
two towns. The move was completed in 1887. The new location
was named Garland after Attorney General Augustus Hill
Garland. Soon after, the towns of Embree and Duck Creek were
combined and the three areas combined to form the city of
Garland, which was incorporated in 1891. By 1904 the town
had a population of 819 people.
In 1920, local businessmen financed a new electrical
generator plant (sold by Fairbanks-Morse) for the town. Out
of this was formed Garland Power & Light, the municipal
electric provider that still powers the city today.
On May 9, 1927, a devastating tornado destroyed much of the
town and killed 17 people, including the former mayor S. E.
Businesses began to move back into the area in the late
1930s. The Craddock food company and later the Byer-Rolnick
hat factory (now owned by Resistol) moved into the area. In
1937, KRLD, a major Dallas radio station, built its radio
antenna tower in Garland, and it is operational to this day.
During World War II, several aircraft plants were operated
in the area, and the Kraft Foods company purchased a vacant
one after the War for its own use. By 1950, the population
of Garland exceeded 10,000 people.
From 1950 to 1954, the Dallas/Garland area suffered from a
serious and extended drought. To supplement the water
provided by wells, the Garland began using the water from
the nearby Lake Lavon.
Following World War II, the suburban population boom that
the whole country experienced also reached Garland. By 1960,
the population nearly quadrupled from the 1950 figure to
about 38,500. By 1970, the population had doubled to about
81,500. By 1980, the population reached 138,850.
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