|A garage door opener is a motorized device that opens and closes garage doors. Most are controlled by switches on the garage wall, as well as by remote controls carried in the garage owner's cars
The electric opener
The electric overhead garage door opener was invented by C.G. Johnson in 1926 in Hartford City, Indiana. Contrary to popular belief, the electric opener does not provide the actual lifting power to open and close a heavy garage door. Instead, most of the actual lifting power comes from the counterbalance springs that are under tension to lift the garage door via steel counterbalance cables. The electric opener only controls how far the door opens and closes, as well as the force the garage door exerts. In most cases, the garage door opener also acts as a lock.
The typical electric garage door opener consists of a power unit that contains the electric motor. The power unit attaches to a track. A trolley connected to an arm that attaches to the top of the garage door slides back and forth on the track, thus opening and closing the garage door. The trolley is guided along the track by a chain, belt, or screw that turns when the motor is operated. A quick-release mechanism is attached to the trolley to allow the garage door to be disconnected from the opener for manual operation during a power failure or in case of emergency. Limit switches on the power unit control the distance the garage door opens and closes once the motor receives a signal from the remote control or wall push button to operate the
The entire assembly hangs above the garage door. The power unit hangs from the ceiling and is located towards the rear of the garage. The end of the track on the opposite end of the power unit attaches to a header bracket that is attached to the header wall above the garage door. The power head is usually supported by punched angle iron.
The first garage door opener remote controls were simple and consisted of a simple transmitter (the remote) and receiver which controlled the opener mechanism. The transmitter would transmit on a designated frequency; the receiver would listen for the radio signal, then open or close the garage, depending on the door position. The basic concept of this can be traced back to World War II. This type of system was used to detonate remote bombs. While novel at the time, the technology ran its course when garage door openers became widely available and used. Then, not only did a person open their garage door, they opened their neighbor’s garage door as well. While the garage door remote is low in power and in range, it was powerful enough to interfere with other receivers in the area.
The second stage of the wireless garage door opener system deals with the shared frequency problem. To rectify this, systems required a garage door owner to preset a digital code via dip switches on the receiver and transmitter. While these switches provided garage door systems with 28 = 256 different codes they were not designed with high security in mind; the main intent was to avoid interference with similar systems nearby.
The third stage of garage door opener market uses a frequency spectrum range between 300-400 MHz and most of the transmitter/receivers rely on hopping or rolling code technology. This approach prevents perpetrators from recording a code and replaying it to open a garage door. Since the signal is supposed to be significantly different from that of any other garage door remote control, manufacturers claim it is impossible for someone other than the owner of the remote to open the garage. When the transmitter sends a code, it generates a new code using an encoder. The receiver, after receiving a correct code, uses the same encoder with the same original seed to generate a new code that it will accept in the future. Because there is a high probability that someone might accidentally push the open button while not in range and desynchronize the code, the receiver generates look-a-head codes ahead of time.
The fourth stage of garage door opener systems is similar to third stage, but it is limited to the 315 MHz frequency. The 315 MHz frequency range avoids interference from the Land Mobile Radio System (LMRS) used by the U.S. military.
|In 1839, John Neely Bryan first visited the place that would one day become Dallas. He had come to the three forks area of the Trinity to survey a spot for a possible trading post serving Indians and settlers. The site was the easiest place to cross the Trinity, and also near where the Preston Trail was planned. This highway would link North Texas to South Texas.
After surveying, Bryan returned to Arkansas to settle his affairs. While he was gone, a treaty was signed, removing all Indians from North Texas. He returned in November of 1841, to find the Indians, and half of his customers, gone. So, he shifted his trading post idea to that of a permanent community. About 22 miles to the northwest, there was a community called Bird's Fort. He invited those who had settled there to come and settle in his proposed town. John Beeman arrived in April of 1842 and planted the first corn. Other families soon followed. Members of the Peters Colony settled nearby, and Peter's Colony agents bragged on the new town, now called
Dallas TX, attracting even more settlers.
Dallas Texas was incorporated as a town in 1856. Samuel Pryor was elected the first mayor. Dallas continued to grow steadily. Many settlers from the failed colony of La Reunion came to Dallas and became leading citizens, adding an artistic and intellectual element to the city. By 1859, Dallas boasted a barber shop and photographer.
Two thousand people lived in Dallas by 1860. The railroad was approaching from the south, and several stage lines were already passing through. However, 1860 was a tumultuous year. Dallas began to prepare for war. Public debates on the issue of secession were held, and a volunteer company was begun. In July of that year, a fire broke out in the square, destroying most of the buildings in the business district.
In 1861, Dallas County voted 741-237 for secession. On June 8, a state of war was declared. Citizens were very supportive of the war effort. Parades were held, and the town was decorated. There was no shortage of volunteers. Since Texas and Dallas were so far from the theater of war, they gave money, flour, and various other supplies to the Southern cause. A munitions factory was built. When the Union Army began to approach Mississippi and Louisiana, their cotton was transported and stored here.
However, times were rough. Prices for basic household necessities rose dramatically. The newspaper stopped printing for almost a year. Cloth was impossible to purchase.
Reconstruction brought its own set of challenges. Texan slaves were freed on June 19, 1865. Many African Americans came to Dallas after the war because the city remained prosperous compared to other Southern towns. Freedman's communities were scattered throughout Dallas. Many whites became fearful, and the Ku Klux Klan first appeared in 1868.
Many Southerners came to the Dallas TX area to rebuild their fortunes after the war. They could no longer maintain plantations, but the farm land of North Texas meant opportunity. Dallas
Texas continued to grow during the Reconstruction years, unlike other Southern towns that had to rebuild first. Dallas had also become the center of the buffalo market.
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