|A garage door opener is a motorized device that opens and closes garage doors. Most are controlled by switches on the garage wall, as well as by remote controls carried in the garage owner's cars
The electric opener
The electric overhead garage door opener was invented by C.G. Johnson in 1926 in Hartford City, Indiana. Contrary to popular belief, the electric opener does not provide the actual lifting power to open and close a heavy garage door. Instead, most of the actual lifting power comes from the counterbalance springs that are under tension to lift the garage door via steel counterbalance cables. The electric opener only controls how far the door opens and closes, as well as the force the garage door exerts. In most cases, the garage door opener also acts as a lock.
The typical electric garage door opener consists of a power unit that contains the electric motor. The power unit attaches to a track. A trolley connected to an arm that attaches to the top of the garage door slides back and forth on the track, thus opening and closing the garage door. The trolley is guided along the track by a chain, belt, or screw that turns when the motor is operated. A quick-release mechanism is attached to the trolley to allow the garage door to be disconnected from the opener for manual operation during a power failure or in case of emergency. Limit switches on the power unit control the distance the garage door opens and closes once the motor receives a signal from the remote control or wall push button to operate the
The entire assembly hangs above the garage door. The power unit hangs from the ceiling and is located towards the rear of the garage. The end of the track on the opposite end of the power unit attaches to a header bracket that is attached to the header wall above the garage door. The power head is usually supported by punched angle iron.
The first garage door opener remote controls were simple and consisted of a simple transmitter (the remote) and receiver which controlled the opener mechanism. The transmitter would transmit on a designated frequency; the receiver would listen for the radio signal, then open or close the garage, depending on the door position. The basic concept of this can be traced back to World War II. This type of system was used to detonate remote bombs. While novel at the time, the technology ran its course when garage door openers became widely available and used. Then, not only did a person open their garage door, they opened their neighbor’s garage door as well. While the garage door remote is low in power and in range, it was powerful enough to interfere with other receivers in the area.
The second stage of the wireless garage door opener system deals with the shared frequency problem. To rectify this, systems required a garage door owner to preset a digital code via dip switches on the receiver and transmitter. While these switches provided garage door systems with 28 = 256 different codes they were not designed with high security in mind; the main intent was to avoid interference with similar systems nearby.
The third stage of garage door opener market uses a frequency spectrum range between 300-400 MHz and most of the transmitter/receivers rely on hopping or rolling code technology. This approach prevents perpetrators from recording a code and replaying it to open a garage door. Since the signal is supposed to be significantly different from that of any other garage door remote control, manufacturers claim it is impossible for someone other than the owner of the remote to open the garage. When the transmitter sends a code, it generates a new code using an encoder. The receiver, after receiving a correct code, uses the same encoder with the same original seed to generate a new code that it will accept in the future. Because there is a high probability that someone might accidentally push the open button while not in range and desynchronize the code, the receiver generates look-a-head codes ahead of time.
The fourth stage of garage door opener systems is similar to third stage, but it is limited to the 315 MHz frequency. The 315 MHz frequency range avoids interference from the Land Mobile Radio System (LMRS) used by the U.S. military.
|Bedford is a suburban city located in northeast Tarrant County, Texas in the "mid-cities" area between Dallas and Fort Worth, but a suburb of Fort Worth. The population was 48,390 as of a 2005 census estimate. Bedford is part of the Hurst-Euless-Bedford Independent School District. Bedford is also famous for Bedford
Snowball, a snow cone stand.
In 2004 the Bedford city council determined that after years of cost cutting, a property tax increase would be necessary. The council adopted a tax rate a few cents higher (actually a 29% increase) than that recommended by the city manager who had suggested splitting the rate increase over two years. The manager recognized that a rate which was greater than eight percent above the prior level would allow residents to use a provision of state law calling for a tax rollback election by petition, but splitting the increase would not.
The petitioners gathered enough signatures and the election was held in March 2005. The rollback provision passed by a mere 10 votes 'for', with the highest turnout ever in a city election. The vote resulted in the rate being rolled back to the original rate (the prior year's rate) plus 8%, the "rollback rate", forcing budget cuts and layoffs.
The city council was forced to revise the budget immediately due to the lack of funds, as they had already begun spending based on the higher tax rate. The council chose to close several city services, including both of the city's swimming pools (one permanently), their recreational center and the city library, although they did manage to implement a large employee pay increase. Municipal library closings in the United States are exceptionally rare, and the news made national headlines and was especially noted by library associations. This was the first library in Texas to close since records had been kept, and the first library in the United States to close since 1989. A few months later, an anonymous donation of $300,000 allowed the reopening of the library, one pool, the rec center, and senior center. Another $20,000 was raised through a resident fundraising drive to help reopen the library. For a period of time after the
reopening, the budget concerns limited open hours of these services (e.g. the library only opened 4 days a week, but later resumed its 6 days-a-week schedule; it is now open seven days a
In May 2005 a regular city council election resulted in the unseating of two incumbent councilpersons who had been supporters of the (higher) tax rate. In response, the mayor, Rick Hurt, who had opposed the rollback, chose to resign.
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